Need to Know:
Bull: intact adult male cattle
Cow: female cattle that has produced a calf
Heifer: young female cattle that has not produce a calf
Steer: male cattle that has been neutered
Calf: offspring of a bull and cow, less than one year old
Calving: when a cow gives birth to a calf
Ruminant: an animal that has a stomach with four compartments (not four stomachs)
Cud: regurgitated food from the rumen that then goes into the rest of digestion
Angus (black & red)
Hereford (red & white)
Limousin (black & red)
Shorthorns (red, white, roan)
Indiana Beef Facts:
Q: Why do you sell steers?
A: Steers are bulls that have been castrated. Their purpose is to produce meat, not breed.
Q: Can you get milk from beef cattle?
A: You can milk any cow (beef or dairy) but the yield will be lower on beef cattle. If the calf is with the mother then it will consuming most if not all of the milk.
Need to Know:
Bull: adult intact male cattle
Dairy cows: cows that are raised to produce milk
Heifer: the name given to a young female before she has given birth to a calf
Udder: mammary gland of cows where milk is produced
Pasteurization: process of heating raw milk to a high temperature and cooling it rapidly
Lactose: a sugar found in milk
Homogenization: process of breaking down fat into smaller particles (to keep the milk from separating)
Holsteins (black & white)
Ayrshire (red & white)
Milking Shorthorn (red & white)
Guernsey (red & white)
Jersey (light brown)
Brown Swiss (gray)
Indiana Dairy Facts:
Q: So if cows produce 6-7 gallons of milk a day, how much milk do bulls produce?
A: None! Only cows produce milk. Bulls are used for breeding and they're male. Trick question!
Q: Why do they look so skinny?
A: Dairy cows put so many calories into making milk, so they do not form fat along their topline like other animals. They store fat elsewhere in their bodies.
Need to Know
Doe: female goat
Buck: male goat
Kid: offspring of a doe and a buck
Wether: castrated male goat
Kidding: when a doe gives birth
Cashmere: hair from a goat
Alpines (French Alpine)
Saanen (white or cream-colored)
Nubians (any color)
LaMancha (any color)
Toggenburg (light fawn to dark chocolate)
Nigerian Dwarf (colorful markings)
Need to Know:
Mare: female horse
Stallion: male horse
Foal: offspring of a mare and a stallion
Gelding: neutered male horse
Foaling: birth of a foal
Colt: young male horse (under 4 years old)
Filly: young female horse (under 4 years old)
Reining: western riding competition where riders guide their horses through patterns of circles, spins, and stops
Dressage: riding competition where riders guide their horses through tests
Hunter-type: typically refers to the type of horse involved in jumping over fences
Draft: larger horse breeds, typically used for pulling carriages, farming, and logging
Hitch: sometimes used to refer to the number of horses being used to pull a carriage or trailer (one-horse, tandem, four-horse, eight-horse, etc.)
Saddle horses: Quarter Horse (any color, typically stocky), Paints, POAs (Pony of Americas)
Draft horses: Belgian (light brown with white mane and tail), Percheron (black or gray), Clydesdale (brown with white feathered feet)
Q: How can you tell how old the horse it?
A: The horses teeth can give you a pretty good idea of how old the horse is.
Q: Why do they braid their manes and tails?
A: For some show purposes and for draft horses its to keep their hair from getting stuck in the carriage gear.
Need to know:
Poult: a young turkey
Tom: male turkey
Hen: female turkey
Gosling: young goose
Gander: male goose
Goose: female goose
Duckling: young duck
Duck: female duck
Drake: male duck
Hen: adult female bird
Rooster: adult male chicken
Chick: newly hatched or very young bird
Pullet: female bird under one year old that has not yet begun to lay eggs
Broiler or fryer: a young chicken under 16 weeks of age.
Incubation: the process of keeping the eggs under controlled temperatures and humidity to permit fertile eggs to hatch.
Egg size increases with the age of the hen; young hens lay pee-wee or small eggs and eventually lay extra large and jumbo eggs.
To test the freshness of an egg, put it in a glass of water. A fresh egg will sink in water, but a stale one will not.
About 60 percent of eggs produced in the U.S. each year are used by consumers and about 9 percent are used by the food service industry. The rest are turned into egg products which are used mostly by food service operators to make restaurant meals and by feed manufacturers to make foods such as mayonnaise and cake mixes.
In modern henhouses, computers control the lighting which triggers egg laying. Most eggs are laid between 7 and 11 a.m. A hen requires about 24 to 26 hours to produce an egg. After the egg is laid, the hen starts all over again about 30 minutes later.
Yolk color depends on the plan pigments in the hens feed. Natural yellow-orange substances, such as marigold petals, may be added to light-colored feed to enhance color. Artificial colors are not permitted.
Eggs sold in stores and eggs sold to restaurants for cooking cannot hatch chicks. They are not fertile.
Hormones are never used in U.S. egg production.
A rooster (male chicken) does not need to be present for a hen to produce an egg.
The fresher the egg, the more difficult to remove the shell.
In general, hens with white feathers and white earlobes produce white eggs. Hens with brown feathers and brown earlobes produce brown eggs. There is no nutritional difference between the colors of eggs.
Indiana Poultry Facts
|#1 Duck Production||#3 Egg Layers||#2 Chicken Hatching||#4 Turkey Production|
Need to Know:
Ram: male sheep
Ewe: female sheep
Lamb: offspring of a ram and ewe
Wether: neutered male
Lambing: when a ewe gives birth.
Shearing: removing the sheep’s wool coat for clothes and fabrics
Lanolin: oil taken from sheep’s wool and used in cosmetics and lotions.
White-faced breeds: Rambouillet, Columbia, Corriedale, Dorset, Southdown
Black-faced breeds: Suffolk, Hampshires
Hair breeds: St. Croix, Katahdin
Q: Why are some of sheep sheared and others not?
A: Typically, the sheared sheep are meat breeds and the “blocked out” or unsheared sheep are wool breeds.
Q: What happens to their tails?
A: The tails are docked at a young age to prevent disease and other health issues.
Need to Know:
Sow: female that has produced at least one litter
Boar: intact male swine
Piglet: offspring of a boar and sow
Pig: term associated with young, immature swine
Gilt: young female that has not produced her first litter
Barrow: neutered male swine
Litter: the group of pigs born to a sow during one farrowing
Farrow: to give birth to piglets
Farrow-to-Finish: a building system that contains all production phases, from breeding to gestation to farrowing to nursery to grow-finishing to market
Dark Breeds: Hampshire (black with white belt)
Spot (white with black spots)
Berkshire (black with white feet)
Poland China (black with six white points)
Hereford (red topline and white underneath)
White Breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Chester White (pure white)
Q: Are pigs pink?
A: No, pigs are actually white, black, brown or red.
Q: Why aren't the tails curly?
A: The tails must be docked for safety reasons. Young pigs will bite each others tails.